Welcome back for round 2 of adventures in typeparams. In our last episode, we lensified the Functor type class. In this episode, we’re going to lensify the Applicative type class and plunge head first into type lens parsing.

Okay… down to business.

> {-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-} > {-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-} > {-# LANGUAGE KindSignatures #-} > {-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-} > {-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-} > {-# LANGUAGE UndecidableInstances #-} > {-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-} > {-# LANGUAGE RankNTypes #-} > {-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}

We’ve got a few more imports today. Our work from last time has been uploaded to hackage and is in the Data.Params.Functor module. For parsing, we’ll be torturing the attoparsec library.

> import Control.Category > import Prelude hiding ( (.), id, Functor(..), Applicative(..) ) > import qualified Prelude as P > import Data.Params > import Data.Params.Functor > import qualified Control.Applicative as Ap > import qualified Data.Attoparsec.Text as A > import Data.Attoparsec.Text (parse,Parser,Result) > import Data.Monoid > import Data.Text (Text,pack)

### Functor review

As a quick warm up, let’s talk about the infix fmap operator <$>. The fmap function has type:

fmap :: Functor lens tb => TypeLens Base lens -> (a -> GetParam lens tb) -> SetParam lens a tb -> tb

All this <$> operator does is move fmap’s lens parameter to the end of the parameter list. This restructuring will help us chain our operators together and will be a common theme throughout the post. The operator is defined as:

> infixl 4 <$> > (f <$> t) lens = fmap lens f t

We can use the operator like:

ghci> length <$> (Left $ Right "test") $ _a._b Left (Right 4)

It will also be useful to have an operator just for specifying the type lens. Since a lens specifies the location “at” which we are operating, we call our new operator @@. It is defined as:

> infixr 0 @@ > (@@) :: (TypeLens p q -> b) -> TypeLens p q -> b > (@@) = id

And used like:

ghci> length <$> (Left $ Right "test") @@ _a._b Left (Right 4)

The fourth lens laws states that we must provide both prefix and infix versions of every combinator. Therefore we also introduce the function:

> at :: TypeLens q p -> (TypeLens q p -> t) -> t > at lens f = f lens

ghci> at (_a._b) $ length <$> (Left $ Right "test") Left (Right 4)

### Lens you an Applicative

We’re ready to see our new Applicative class:

> class Functor lens tb => Applicative lens tb where > > pure :: GetParam lens tb -> TypeLens Base lens -> tb > > ap :: > ( tf ~ SetParam lens (a -> b) tb > , ta ~ SetParam lens a tb > , a ~ GetParam lens ta > , b ~ GetParam lens tb > ) > => TypeLens Base lens > -> tf > -> ta > -> tb

The functions pure and ap have the exact same meaning and laws as their counterparts in the standard libraries. The only difference is the addition of the TypeLens parameter and corresponding constraints.

The Left and Right Applicative instances for the Either class are defined as:

> instance Applicative p a => Applicative (Param_a p) (Either a b) where > pure a lens = Left $ pure a (zoom lens) > ap lens (Right a) _ = Right a > ap lens (Left f) (Right a) = Right a > ap lens (Left f) (Left b) = Left $ ap (zoom lens) f b > instance Applicative p b => Applicative (Param_b p) (Either a b) where > pure b lens = Right $ pure b (zoom lens) > ap lens (Left a) _ = Left a > ap lens (Right f) (Left a) = Left a > ap lens (Right f) (Right b) = Right $ ap (zoom lens) f b

And just like with Functors, we have to define the base case for our recusive definitions:

> instance Applicative Base t where > pure a _ = a > ap _ f = f

Now, to get the Applicative notation we all know and love, we redefine the <*> operator. It is just a thin wrapper around the ap function. Like the <$> operator, we just move the lens parameter to the end:

> infixl 4 <*> > (tf <*> ta) lens = ap lens (tf lens) ta

Easy as cake!

Let’s try it out!

We’ll start with the doubly nested Either. For nested Eithers, the lens we use specifies what the success constructors are. Any other constructors will act as errors.

Here’s an example without an error:

> fact1 :: Either (Either a String) b > fact1 = (++) <$> Left (Right "haskell") <*> Left (Right " rocks!") @@ _a._b

ghci> fact1 Left (Right "haskell rocks!")

Here we have one possible way of signaling an error:

> fact2 :: Either (Either a String) String > fact2 = (++) <$> Left (Right "python") <*> Right "error" @@ _a._b

ghci> fact2 Right "error"

And here we have the other way:

> fact3 :: Either (Either String String) b > fact3 = (++) <$> Left (Right "c++") <*> Left (Left "error") @@ _a._b

ghci> fact3 Left (Left "error")

Of course, Applicatives are much more useful when our functions have many arguments. Let’s create a function that concatenates four strings together into a phrase:

> cat4 :: String -> String -> String -> String -> String > cat4 a b c d = a ++ " " ++ b ++ " "++ c ++ " " ++ d

And create a phrase with no errors:

> phrase1 :: Either (Either a String) b > phrase1 = cat4 > <$> Left (Right "haskell") > <*> Left (Right "is") > <*> Left (Right "super") > <*> Left (Right "awesome") > @@ _a._b

ghci> phrase1 Left (Right "haskell is super awesome")

And a phrase with two errors:

> phrase2 :: Either (Either String String) String > phrase2 = cat4 > <$> Left (Right "python") > <*> Right "error" > <*> Left (Right "is") > <*> Left (Left "error") > @@ _a._b

ghci> phrase2 Right "error"

Notice that in phrase2 we had two different causes of errors. The error with the fewest number of terms will always win. As a proof by example, let’s shuffle around our previous errors. We still get the same result:

> phrase3 :: Either (Either String String) String > phrase3 = cat4 > <$> Left (Right "python") > <*> Left (Left "error") > <*> Left (Right "is") > <*> Right "error" > @@ _a._b

ghci> phrase3 Right "error"

### Pure bloods only

Thisis cool, but it’s not yet very generic. Everytime we want a success, we have to manually specify the constructors we want to use. We can avoid this tedium using the pure function. It’s type signature is:

pure :: Applicative lens tb => GetParam lens tb -> TypeLens Base lens -> tb

The important thing to notice is that the last parameter takes a TypeLens. This follows our magic formula. We can substitute it into our phrase1 variable like:

> phrase1' :: Either (Either a String) b > phrase1' = cat4 > <$> (pure "haskell" @@ _a._b) > <*> (pure "is" @@ _a._b) > <*> (pure "super" @@ _a._b) > <*> (pure "awesome" @@ _a._b) > @@ _a._b

But this is nasty! We have to specify the same TypeLens everywhere we want to use the pure function.

Thankfully, we don’t have to do this. The whole point of lenses is to create ridiculous new combinators that reduce boilerplate! So let’s do that! The “ap minus” combintator will automatically apply the lens for us:

> infixl 4 <*>- > (tf <*>- ta) lens = (tf <*> ta lens) lens

The minus sign signifies that the right side is “minus a lens” and so we should give it one automtically. Using this combinator, we can rewrite our phrase to look like:

> phrase1'' :: Either (Either a String) b > phrase1'' = cat4 > <$> (pure "haskell" @@ _a._b) > <*>- pure "is" > <*>- pure "super" > <*>- pure "awesome" > @@ _a._b

In order to get rid of the first lens application, we’ll need to perform the same trick to <$>:

> infixl 4 <$>- > (f <$>- t) lens = (f <$> t lens) lens

And we get the beautiful:

> phrase1''' :: Either (Either a String) b > phrase1''' = cat4 > <$>- pure "haskell" > <*>- pure "is" > <*>- pure "super" > <*>- pure "awesome" > @@ _a._b

### Combinatorics with combinators

There’s two more Applicative combinators needed for parsing: *> and <* . They use the same definition in the standard libraries, but with a third lens parameter:

> infixl 4 <* > (u <* v) lens = pure const <*> u <*> v @@ lens > infixl 4 *> > (u *> v) lens = pure (const id) <*> u <*> v @@ lens

Now we need to create all of the “minus” operators. Remember that the minus sign points to the variable that will have the lens automatically applied for us:

> infixl 4 <*- > infixl 4 -<*- > infixl 4 -<* > (u <*- v) lens = ( u <* v lens ) lens > (u -<*- v) lens = ( u lens <* v lens ) lens > (u -<* v) lens = ( u lens <* v ) lens > infixl 4 *>- > infixl 4 -*>- > infixl 4 -*> > (u *>- v) lens = ( u *> v lens ) lens > (u -*>- v) lens = ( u lens *> v lens ) lens > (u -*> v) lens = ( u lens *> v ) lens

Confused? Just remember: when you master these new combinators, all the n00bs will worship your l33t h4sk311 5ki115.

### Parsing time

Now that we’ve constructed our torture chamber, it’s time to put attoparsec on the rack. We’ll use the built-in “blind” Functor and Applicative instances to define our lensified ones as:

> mkParams ''Parser > instance Functor p a => Functor (Param_a p) (Parser a) where > fmap' lens f parser = P.fmap (fmap' (zoom lens) f) parser > instance Applicative (Param_a Base) (Parser a) where > pure a lens = Ap.pure $ pure a (zoom lens) > ap lens tf ta = tf Ap.<*> ta

And now we’re ready to start parsing. We’ll start simple. The attoparsec library provides a function called string that matches a specified string. We’ll use it to create a Parser that matches the phrase “haskell rocks”:

> chain1 :: TypeLens Base (Param_a Base) -> Parser Text > chain1 = A.string "haskell" *> A.string " rocks"

ghci> parse (chain1 @@ _a) "haskell rocks" Done "" " rocks"

In the above example, we chose to *not* specify the lens in the chain1 variable. This means that if we want to chain it with another parser, we should use the minus then operator like:

> chain2 :: TypeLens Base (Param_a Base) -> Parser Text > chain2 = chain1 -*> A.string "!"

ghci> parse (chain2 @@ _a) "haskell rocks!" Done "" "!"

If we choose to compose on the right, then we’ll need to move the minus sign to the right:

> chain3 :: TypeLens Base (Param_a Base) -> Parser Text > chain3 = A.string "¡" *>- chain2

ghci> parse (chain3 @@ _a) "¡haskell rocks!" Done "" "!"

We have to use minus operators whenever we chain more than two parsers together. In the example below, the first *> takes three parameters (two parsers and a lens). It gets the lens from the minus of the first -*> operator. That operator also needs a lens, which it gets from the next -*>, and so on.

> chain4 :: TypeLens Base (Param_a Base) -> Parser Text > chain4 = A.string "do" > *> A.string " you" > -*> A.string " get" > -*> A.string " it" > -*> A.string " yet?"

ghci> parse (chain4 @@ _a) "do you get it yet?" Done "" " yet?"

If we need to apply a lens to both sides, then we use the -*>- operator:

> chain5 :: TypeLens Base (Param_a Base) -> Parser Text > chain5 = chain3 -*> A.string " ... " -*>- chain4

ghci> parse (chain5 @@ _a) "¡haskell rocks! ... do you get it yet?" Done "" " yet?"

### Stacking parsers

Everything in the last section we could have done without type lenses. But now we’re going to lift the Parser into an arbitrary data type and work with it.

As a concrete example, we’ll put our Parser inside a Maybe. The Maybe Applicative instance is:

> instance Applicative p a => Applicative (Param_a p) (Maybe a) where > pure a lens = Just $ pure a (zoom lens) > ap lens Nothing _ = Nothing > ap lens (Just f) Nothing = Nothing > ap lens (Just f) (Just b) = Just $ ap (zoom lens) f b

And for convenience we’ll use the following parseMaybe function. It has the same effect as the parse function provided by attoparsec, but does everything from within a Maybe.

> parseMaybe :: Maybe (Parser a) -> Text -> Maybe (Result a) > parseMaybe parser str = flip parse str <$> parser @@ _a

Next, we lensify our parser combinators. This string lifts the string function provided by the attoparsec library into an arbitrary parameter specified by our type lens:

> string c lens = pure (A.string c) (zoom lens)

Back to parsing.

Let’s just repeat the same 5 parse chains from above, but now within the Maybe context. Notice two things:

- The A.string function provided by the attoparsec library did not take a type parameter, but our new string function does. This means there’s a lot more minus combinators!
- Instead of specifying our lens to focus on the _a parameter, we must focus on the _a._a parameter to hit the parser.

> chain1' :: TypeLens Base (Param_a (Param_a Base)) -> Maybe (Parser Text) > chain1' = string "haskell" -*>- string " rocks"

ghci> parseMaybe (chain1' @@ _a._a) "haskell rocks" Just Done "" " rocks"

> chain2' :: TypeLens Base (Param_a (Param_a Base)) -> Maybe (Parser Text) > chain2' = chain1' -*>- string "!"

ghci> parse (chain2' @@ _a._a) "haskell rocks!" Done "" '!'

> chain3' :: TypeLens Base (Param_a (Param_a Base)) -> Maybe (Parser Text) > chain3' = string "¡" -*>- chain2'

ghci> parse (chain3' @@ _a._a) "¡haskell rocks!" Done "" '!'

> chain4' :: TypeLens Base (Param_a (Param_a Base)) -> Maybe (Parser Text) > chain4' = string "do" -*>- string " you" -*>- string " get" -*>- string " it" -*>- string " yet?"

ghci> parse (chain4' @@ _a._a) "do you get it yet?" Done "" " yet?"

> chain5' :: TypeLens Base (Param_a (Param_a Base)) -> Maybe (Parser Text) > chain5' = chain3' -*>- string " ... " -*>- chain4'

ghci> parse (chain5' @@ _a._a) "¡haskell rocks! ... do you get it yet?" Done "" " yet?"

Again, there’s nothing special about being nested inside a Maybe. We could be nested inside any monstrous data type of your choosing. Yay!

But in the example we’ve chosen, what happens if we add a Maybe into the chain? Nothing takes over and eats the whole Parser. It doesn’t matter if the Parse was failing or succeeding, the answer is Nothing.

> chain6 :: TypeLens Base (Param_a (Param_a Base)) -> Maybe (Parser Text) > chain6 = string "python" -*> Nothing

ghci> parseMaybe (chain6 @@ _a._a) "python" Nothing ghci> parseMaybe (chain6 @@ _a._a) "haskell" Nothing

### Circuit parsing teaser

Now we’re ready for some super coolness. We’re going to design a parsing circuit that parses three unique Parse streams simultaneously!

Here is our Circuit definition:

> data Circuit x y z > = Circuit (Maybe x) (Maybe y) (Maybe z) > | CircuitFail > deriving (Show) > mkParams ''Circuit

The x, y, and z type params will hold the Parsers. These Parsers are wrapped within a Maybe. A value of Nothing represents that that parser will not consume any input. A value of (Just parser) means that it will consume input.

The Functor instances are rather interesting because of the Maybe wrapper. We must compose _a with the zoomed lens to make the types work out:

> instance Functor p x => Functor (Param_x p) (Circuit x y z) where > fmap' lens f CircuitFail = CircuitFail > fmap' lens f (Circuit x y z) = Circuit (fmap' (_a . zoom lens) f x) y z > instance Functor p y => Functor (Param_y p) (Circuit x y z) where > fmap' lens f CircuitFail = CircuitFail > fmap' lens f (Circuit x y z) = Circuit x (fmap' (_a . zoom lens) f y) z > instance Functor p z => Functor (Param_z p) (Circuit x y z) where > fmap' lens f CircuitFail = CircuitFail > fmap' lens f (Circuit x y z) = Circuit x y (fmap' (_a . zoom lens) f z)

The Applicative instances are where all the action is at. In each case, the pure function is fairly straightforward. It looks just like the other ones we’ve seen except that it applies the _a to the zoomed lens and gives default values of Nothing to the other parsers. The ap function calls ap on the appropriate parser and uses the First Monoid instance on the other two.

> instance > ( Applicative p x > , Monoid y > , Monoid z > ) => Applicative (Param_x p) (Circuit x y z) > where > pure x lens = Circuit (pure x @@ (_a . zoom lens)) Nothing Nothing > ap lens CircuitFail _ = CircuitFail > ap lens _ CircuitFail = CircuitFail > ap lens (Circuit x1 y1 z1) (Circuit x2 y2 z2) = Circuit > (ap (_a . zoom lens) x1 x2) > (getFirst $ First y1 <> First y2) > (getFirst $ First z1 <> First z2) > instance (Monoid x, Applicative p y, Monoid z) => Applicative (Param_y p) (Circuit x y z) where > pure a lens = Circuit Nothing (pure a @@ _a . zoom lens) Nothing > ap lens CircuitFail _ = CircuitFail > ap lens _ CircuitFail = CircuitFail > ap lens (Circuit x1 y1 z1) (Circuit x2 y2 z2) = Circuit > (getFirst $ First x1 <> First x2) > (ap (_a . zoom lens) y1 y2) > (getFirst $ First z1 <> First z2) > instance (Monoid x, Monoid y, Applicative p z) => Applicative (Param_z p) (Circuit x y z) where > pure a lens = Circuit Nothing Nothing (pure a @@ _a . zoom lens) > ap lens CircuitFail _ = CircuitFail > ap lens _ CircuitFail = CircuitFail > ap lens (Circuit x1 y1 z1) (Circuit x2 y2 z2) = Circuit > (getFirst $ First x1 <> First x2) > (getFirst $ First y1 <> First y2) > (ap (_a . zoom lens) z1 z2)

We write a nice wrapper so we can parse our circuits:

> parseCircuit > :: Circuit (Parser x) (Parser y) (Parser z) > -> Text > -> Text > -> Text > -> Circuit (Result x) (Result y) (Result z) > parseCircuit CircuitFail _ _ _ = CircuitFail > parseCircuit (Circuit x y z) str1 str2 str3 = Circuit > ( parseMaybe x str1 ) > ( parseMaybe y str2 ) > ( parseMaybe z str3 )

And now here is a simple circuit for us to play with:

> circ1 :: Circuit (Parser Text) (Parser Text) (Parser Text) > circ1 = Circuit > (string (pack "haskell") @@ _a._a) > (string (pack "is" ) @@ _a._a) > (string (pack "fun" ) @@ _a._a)

When we try to parse our circuit, we just match each word in parallel:

ghci> parseCircuit circ1 "haskell" "is" "fun" Circuit (Just Done "" "haskell") (Just Done "" "is") (Just Done "" "fun")

In this example, we compose our circuit only on the first parameter:

ghci> parseCircuit (circ1 *> circ1 @@ _x._a) "haskell" "is" "fun" Circuit (Just Partial _) (Just Done "" "is") (Just Done "" "fun")

Notice that (above) we no longer finished after matching the word “haskell”. We’ve got a whole ‘nother haskell to go. Oh Joy!

Here, we match completely:

ghci> parseCircuit (circ1 *> circ1 @@ _x._a) "haskellhaskell" "is" "fun" Circuit (Just Done "" "haskell") (Just Done "" "is") (Just Done "" "fun")

In our Circuit type, every parser is—at least so far—acting completely independently. That means one parser can fail while the others succeed:

ghci> parseCircuit circ1 "python " "is" "fun" Circuit (Just Fail "python " [] "Failed reading: takeWith") (Just Done "" "is") (Just Done "" "fun")

Let’s create another simple circuit to play with. In this one, only the first parser performs any actions. The other two are noops:

> circ2 :: Circuit (Parser Text) (Parser y) (Parser z) > circ2 = Circuit > (string (pack " with lenses") @@ _a._a) > Nothing > Nothing

We can compose circ1 and circ2 exactly as you would suspect. Our original string is now only a partial match:

ghci> parseCircuit (circ1 *> circ2 @@ _x._a) "haskell" "is" "fun" Circuit (Just Partial _) (Just Done "" "is") (Just Done "" "fun")

But this matches perfectly:

ghci> parseCircuit (circ1 *> circ2 @@ _x._a) "haskell with lenses" "is" "fun" Circuit (Just Done "" " with lenses") (Just Done "" "is") (Just Done "" "fun")

And this fails:

ghci> parseCircuit (circ1 *> circ2 @@ _x._a) "haskell without lenses" "is" "fun" Circuit (Just Fail " without lenses" [] "Failed reading: takeWith") (Just Done "" "is") (Just Done "" "fun")

We can simplify the code of circ2 even further (and make it more generic) using the pure function:

> circ3 :: Circuit (Parser Text) (Parser y) (Parser z) > circ3 = pure (string (pack " with lenses") @@ _a) @@ _x

circ3 behaves exactly like circ2 when sequenced with circ1:

ghci> parseCircuit (circ1 *> circ3 @@ _x._a) "haskell with lenses" "is" "fun" Circuit (Just Done "" " with lenses") (Just Done "" "is") (Just Done "" "fun")

And that’s enough for today. GHC needs to rest. It’s tired.

### Tune in next time…

We’ve still go so many tantalizing questions to answer:

- What is that CircuitFail gizmo doing?
- How do I use Alternative to branch my parser?
- Can a Circuit’s parser depend on the other parsers in the Circuit?
- Do fiber optic burritos taste good??!?!

Stay tuned to find out!

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