# Polymorphism in Haskell vs C++

posted on 2014-09-10 by Jonathan Dugan

Parametric polymorphism is when you write one function that works on many data types. In C++, this is pretty confusing, but it’s really easy in Haskell. Let’s take a look at an example.

Let’s say we want a function that calculates the volume of a box. In C++, we’d use templates so that our function works with any numeric type:

template<typename T>
T boxVolume(T length, T width, T height)
{
return length * width * height;
}

Templates have an awkward syntax, but that isn’t too much of a hassle. C++ has much bigger problems. What if in the course of writing your program, you accidentally pass in some strings to this function?

int main()
{
cout << boxVolume("oops","no","strings") << endl;
}

We get this error when we compile with g++:

test.cpp: In instantiation of _T boxVolume(T, T, T) [with T = const    char*]_:
test.cpp:22:47:   required from here
test.cpp:8:19: error: invalid operands of types _const char*_ and _const char*_ to binary
_operator*_
return length * width * height;

This error message is a little hard to understand because of the templates. If we had written our function to use doubles instead of templates:

double boxVolume(double length, double width, double height)
{
return length * width * height;
}

We would get this simpler error message:

test.cpp: In function _int main()_:
test.cpp:22:47: error: cannot convert _const char*_ to _double_ for argument _1_ to _double
boxVolume(double, double, double)_
cout << boxVolume("oops","nope","bad!") << endl;

We see that this error is shorter and easier to use, as it clearly tells us we cannot pass string literals to our function. Plus there is no superfluous comment about our “instantiation” of boxVolume.

Now let’s try to write a polymorphic boxVolume in Haskell:

boxVolume :: a -> a -> a -> a
boxVolume length width height = length * width * height

When we try to compile, we get the error:

test.hs:2:50:
No instance for (Num a) arising from a use of *'
Possible fix:
add (Num a) to the context of
the type signature for boxVolume :: a -> a -> a -> a
In the expression: length * width * height
In an equation for boxVolume':
boxVolume length width height = length * width * height

Uh-oh! An error message! What went wrong? It says that we tried to use the * operator without declaring our parameters as an instance of the Num type class.

But what is a type class? This leads us to ad hoc polymorphism, also known as function overloading. Ad hoc polymorphism is when a function can be applied to different argument types, each with a different implementation. For example, the STL classes stack and queue each have their own push and pop functions, which, although they have the same names, do different things:

stack<int> s;
queue<int> q;

s.push(1); q.push(1);
s.push(2); q.push(2);
s.push(3); q.push(3);

s.pop(); q.pop();

After the above code is executed, the stack s will be left with the numbers 1,2 while the queue q will be left with the numbers 2,3. The function pop behaves differently on stacks and queues: calling pop on a stack removes the item added last, while calling pop on a queue removes the item added first.

Haskell does not support function overloading, except through type classes. For example, if we were to specifically declare our own Stack and Queue classes with push and pop functions:

data Stack = Stack  [Int] deriving Show
data Queue = Queue [Int] deriving Show

push :: Stack -> Int -> Stack
push (Stack xs) x = Stack (x:xs)

pop :: Stack -> Stack
pop (Stack []) = Stack []
pop (Stack xs) = Stack (tail xs)

push :: Queue -> Int -> Queue
push (Queue xs) x = Queue (x:xs)

pop :: Queue -> Queue
pop (Queue []) = Queue []
pop (Queue xs) = Queue (init xs)

It results in a compiler error:

stack.hs:11:1:
Duplicate type signatures for push'
at stack.hs:4:1-4
stack.hs:11:1-4

stack.hs:12:1:
Multiple declarations of push'
Declared at: stack.hs:5:1
stack.hs:12:1

stack.hs:14:1:
Duplicate type signatures for pop'
at stack.hs:7:1-3
stack.hs:14:1-3

stack.hs:15:1:
Multiple declarations of pop'
Declared at: stack.hs:8:1
stack.hs:15:1

Changing the names of our push and pop functions to, say, stackPush, stackPop, queuePush, and queuePop would let the program compile.

A more generic way, however, is to create a type class. Let’s make a Sequence type class that implements our push and pop functions.

class Sequence s where
push :: s -> Int -> s
pop :: s -> s

This type class declaration says that any data type that is an instance of this Sequence type class can use the push and pop operations, or, in other words, can add and remove an Int. By making our Stack and Queue instances of the Sequence type class, both data types can have their own implementations of the push and pop functions!

instance Sequence Stack where
push (Stack xs) x = Stack (x:xs)
pop (Stack []) = Stack []
pop (Stack xs) = Stack (tail xs)

instance Sequence Queue where
push (Queue xs) x = Queue (x:xs)
pop (Queue []) = Queue []
pop (Queue xs) = Queue (init xs)

Replacing our function definitions with these instantiations of the Sequence type class lets our program compile.

Type classes are also an important part of using templates in function definitions. In our function boxVolume, we got an error because we tried to use the * operation without declaring the type variable a as an instance of the Num type class. The Num type class is basically for anything that acts like a number, such as Int, Float, and Double, and it lets you use the common operations of +, -, and *.

Let’s change our function to declare that a is a Num:

boxVolume :: (Num a) => a -> a -> a -> a
boxVolume length width height = length * width * height

This is called adding a class constraint. Whenever we want to declare a template function that relies on other functions, we have to add a class constraint that tells both the user and the compiler which types of data can be put into the function.

If we were to call boxVolume on strings, we would get this simple error message:

ghci> boxVolume "a" "b" "c"

<interactive>:14:1:
No instance for (Num [Char]) arising from a use of boxVolume'
Possible fix: add an instance declaration for (Num [Char])
In the expression: boxVolume "a" "b" "c"
In an equation for it': it = boxVolume "a" "b" "c"

The compiler tells us it can’t evaluate this function because strings aren’t numbers! If we really wanted to, we could make String an instance of the Num type class, and then this function would work! (Of course, why you would want to do that is beyond me.) That’s the power of parametric polymorphism combined with type classes.

So there you have it. In C++, although we can easily implement ad hoc polymorphism through function overloading, parametric polymorphism is a tricky beast. This is made easier in Haskell, especially with the use of type classes. Type classes guarantee that data passed in to functions will work, and guide the user into what they can pass into a function. Use type classes to your advantage when you next write a Haskell program!